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淺談GMAT | 你真的會做句子改錯嗎?


來源:   時間:2019-10-30 11:44:08

1.OG2020解讀

GMAT官方指南(Official Guide)作為考試官方出版的備考材料,選取過去實戰中的原題,體現出GMAC的出題方向和考察內容。
1. OG2020句子改錯新增題目數量與難度分布
OG20綜合SC新增13題,11題難度為Medium,2題難度為Easy。

2. OG2020句子改錯新增題目考查內容分布
表一總結了新增題目設計的知識點。新增題目中,涉及到句意邏輯的題目數量最多,在13題中占6題;修辭、文法結構和用詞考點次之,占5題。
 
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(表一)
 
表二總結了每一題考查的知識點。從表格中可以直觀地看出,句子改錯部分幾乎不會單獨考查某一知識點,而是將多個知識點打包組合來考查學生對句式和句意的理解能力。
 
這樣的考察方式不難看出官方給考生的一個信號:不能每個選項只抓一個考點,而是盡可能地把每一個選項里所有考點抓出來,從而當面對各有優劣的兩個選項時,才能從多個角度進行綜合評估。
 
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(表二)
 
3. OG2020句子改錯部分八大考點總結
新版官方指南中列出的八大考點分類和OG2019保持一致。
 
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3.1 Agreement 一致性
在OG2020中,官方列出了兩類Agreement的考點:
主謂一致
√:Each of the circuits has its own switch.
×:Each of the circuits have its own switch.
指代一致
√:I threw away the banana and the mango because they were both spoiled.
×:I threw away the banana and the mango because it was both spoiled.
 
雖然大部分考生能夠辨別出這兩大類Agreement考點的正確與錯誤使用方式,但是在實戰中遇到長難句式結構時往往會忽略句子結構中的一致性。不難看出,官方希望考生能夠加強對長難句式結構的敏感度。
 
思考一下,以下這個句子有什么問題:
The prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls to produce electric power was exciting to Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating current, and so he predicted in the mid-1890's that electricity generated at Niagara would one day power the streetcars of London and the streetlights of Paris.
 
3.2 Diction 用詞
OG2020中對用詞這一考點的細分如下:
形容詞與副詞的使用
√:I could easily tell that the cat was friendly.
×:I could easy tell that the cat was friendly
代詞的使用
√:I gave him a good performance rating.
×:I gave himself a good performance rating.
量詞的使用
√:Fewer deliveries arrived today than yesterday.
×:Less deliveries arrived today than yesterday.
介詞的使用
√:The editor was sitting in his office all afternoon.
×:The editor was sitting into his office all afternoon.
 
3.3 Grammatical Construction 語法結構
OG2020中對語法結構這一考點的細分如下:
句子完整性
√:In any case, the contract is acceptable.
×:In any case is acceptable.
使用正確的標點與連接詞
√:The weather yesterday was hot, and there were thunderstorms in the evening.
×:The weather yesterday was hot and there were thunderstorms in the evening.
特殊結構
the more…,the more…
倒裝句型
In neither case could I find the needed information.
句子的省略
The film I saw last night was boring.
 
語法結構強調語法層面上的正確性,需要考生判斷選項是否是一個完整的句子。判斷一個簡單句是否完整很容易,但是在GMAT中幾乎找不到一個“簡單”句。GMAT的常規操作是在各個選項中加入大量修飾語和從句,并在這些修飾部分中設置一些不易察覺的語法結構錯誤,如缺少動詞,Run-on以及雙重主語。這就需要考生在重重修飾中找到他們的修飾對象,也就是句子的核心。
 
思考一下,以下這個句子有什么問題:
Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating current, because he was excited with the prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls for producing electric power, he predicted in the mid-1890's that electricity generated at Niagara would one day power the streetcars of London and the streetlights of Paris.
 
3.4 Idiom 固定搭配
OG2020對這一考點的解釋如下:“Idioms are standard forms of expression that consist of ordinary words but whose uses cannot be inferred from the meanings of their component parts or the basic conventions of grammar and usage.”也就是在英語母語使用者中公認的表達方式。
 
OG2020中對固定搭配這一考點的細分如下:
介詞搭配
with regard to, depend on
連接詞的固定搭配
as…as, not only…but also
動詞搭配
give up on, turn out
代詞
there be
復合修飾語
all in all
 
特別需要注意的是,在考點的最后,OG特別強調了Idioms不會考查過時的、專業領域中使用的以及口語化的固定搭配,說明GMAT不會考太難的固定搭配,考到的一定是考生學過的或者是看見過的。
 
3.5 Logical Prediction 有效邏輯
OG2020中對有效邏輯這一考點的細分如下:
修飾部分貼近修飾對象
√:Concerned that the snake might be venomous, the workers left it in the crate untouched.
×:Concerned that it might be venomous, the snake was left untouched by the workers in the crate.
代詞清楚指代先行詞
√:After reviewing the report from the consultants, the company may consider changing the logo.
×:After it has reviewed the report from the consultants, the logo may be considered for changing by the company.
語意搭配合理
√:The three types of wildlife most often seen in the park are sparrows, mallards, and squirrels, in that order.
×:The single most often type of wildlife seen in the park is the sparrow, the mallard, and the squirrel, in that order.
省略或多余用詞影響語意的合理性
√:The car was traveling slowly along the highway.
×:The car's speed was traveling slowly along the highway.
邏輯顛倒
√:Forecasters said the cold front will move through the region tomorrow.
×:Forecasters, said the cold front, will move through the region tomorrow.
歧義用詞
√:She has studied Greek and speaks that language in addition to Gujarati.
×:She has studied Greek and speaks it as well as Gujarati.
 
思考一下,以下句子在邏輯語義上有什么問題?
Unlike the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants, situated underground or in pieces of wood, raider ants make a portable nest by entwining their long legs to form "curtains" of ants that hang from logs or boulders, providing protection for the queen and the colony larvae and pupae.
 
3.6 Parallelism 平行結構
OG2020中對平行結構這一考點的細分如下:
確保多項動詞,形容詞或副詞形式上的平行
√:I ate supper, went for a walk, and then visited some friends.
×:I ate supper, then walking, and then visitation of some friends.
確保固定搭配間并列內容的平行
√:We were impressed not only by the beauty of the inlets and beaches but also by the diversity of the plant life.
×:We were impressed not only by the beauty of the inlets and beaches but also the diversity of the plant life impressed us.
判斷正確的平行對象
√:He mended the torn fabric with a needle and thread.
×:He mended the torn fabric with a needle and mended it with thread.
判斷平行對象的順序
√:Last week we had four meetings, of which the first, second, and third were on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday and the last one Friday.
×:Last week we had four meetings of which the last was on Friday, with the first, second, and third being on Thursday, Tuesday, and Wednesday.
 
思考一下,這句話在平行上有什么不足之處:
Just as they recycled ancient Egyptian architectural materials in constructing ancient Greek Alexandria, so ancient Greek materials from the construction of that city were reused in subsequent centuries by Roman, Muslim, and modern builders.
 
3.7 Rhetorical Construction 修辭結構
OG2020中對修辭結構這一考點的細分如下:
精簡用詞
√:We will carefully review your memo and let you know whether we are interested in the solutions you propose.
×:We will "review"--i.e., carefully scrutinize--your memo submitted, letting you know, vis-à-vis the memo's contained proposal details, whether there is interest, on your part, or not, in those.
表意明確
√:In medical diagnosis, influenza can be understood as an acute respiratory infection caused by any of the influenza viruses.
×:In medical diagnosis, influenza can be understood as when a virus affects you.
主被動
√:We had lunch in the hotel.
×:Lunch was had in the hotel by us.
 
由于修辭結構是句子改錯部分常考的內容,簡潔性又是修辭結構的重點,考生或許會采用“選最短的選項”這一看似安全的策略。也有些考生認準了精確表述這一要求,認為選擇最長選項是保險做法。但是深諳博弈之道的GMAT出題人不會設計出用固定做題技巧就能解出的題目,我們需要根據選項之間的差異靈活判斷。
 
思考一下,下面這個句子在表意上有何不足之處:
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
 
3.8 Verb Form 動詞形式
句子改錯部分對動詞形式的考查主要有以下內容:
時態
由于缺少語境,需要借由句內語義判斷時態
出現兩個動詞時,避免時態上的矛盾
動名詞分詞與不定式
√:Having nowhere else to go, I wandered through the airport all day.
×:My having nowhere else to go wandered through the airport all day.
√:Widely disliked, the software went unused.
×:To have widely disliked it, the software went unused.
√:My colleagues went to find another microphone.
×:My colleagues went find another microphone.
 
思考一下,以下這個句子中動詞時態使用的正確嗎?
Australian embryologists have found evidence to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
 
關于考點的小總結
GMAT考試的語文部分一直困擾廣大考生,相信很多初次接觸GMAT考試的小伙伴都會恐懼那段被GMAT支配的日子。布魯斯·韋恩說過,要想戰勝恐懼,必先成為恐懼。在GMAT的世界也是如此:當我們了解考點后,不妨站在出題專家的角度,換位思考,揣摩考點和錯誤選項設置方式,將自己變為出題人。
 
4. OG2020中關于如何看待選項的建議
 
OG2020第762頁中有如下一段話“Sometimes you may be able to think of a wording that works better than any of the options presented, but the task is to find the most effective of the available choices within the parameters of the problem posed. ” 也就是說,當看完選項時,也許我們能想出一個比所有選項更好的句子表述方式,但是牢記我們的任務是:在僅有的五個選項中找出最有效的表達。
 
首先,我們要做的不是質疑正確選項,正確選項永遠是對的。正確的思考方向是評估哪一個選項最好,為什么這個選項綜合評估后贏過其他選項。
 
其次,對于錯誤的選項,我們不需要提出“如何改正確”這類問題。我們需要做的是觀察選項之間的差異點,從選項與選項間的差異出發,去思考這樣的改寫好或者不好在哪里,而不是發明一個與官方風格迥異的改寫方式。
 
最后,切忌將選項孤立化,判斷每一個選項正確與否。特別是對于存在句意邏輯這一考點的題目,當我們孤立單個選項進行判斷時,或許會感到每個選項都非常合理,找不到選項存在的問題,從而陷入困境。我們應當采用縱向比較的方式,客觀看待每一個選項。
 

 2.GMAT Official Advanced Questions (OAQ) 難題分冊

 
1. 難題分冊內容介紹
GMAC官方出版了一本336頁的高階真題集。官方對這一習題集的介紹是這樣的——“Some of these questions have appeared in earlier editions of the GMAT Official Guide series. Others have never been published before.” 也就是說,題目源自歷年GMAT考試難題,部分題目源自過去的OG,部分題目至本書出版前未發布過。
 
2. 難題分冊題目分布
難題分冊收錄了150道數學題和150道語文題。其中語文部分中句子改錯題目的比重為34%,共計51題。
 
3. 難題分冊的使用建議
根據官方的建議,難題分冊的受眾是完成GMAT官方指南中的簡單、中等和困難問題組合之后,想要挑戰自身能力的考生。
 
另外,題目是歷年GMAT考試的難題,也就是俗稱的“700+題”,需要攻克此類難題的考生,GMAT分數需要已經達到680分以上。為什么呢?簡單來說,遇不到。如果成績未達到680分的水平,可能在考場上遇不到這類題。GMAT考試的一大特點就是其自適應性的考試特性,考試過程中會根據考生的答題表現,隨時調整變化之后的題目難度。處在680分以下分數段的考生,必然在某些單項或者能力點上存在漏洞,造成考試過程中的難度向下調整,導致完成了這些700+題目,考試中也遇不到這類題目。
                                                                                                           
總的來說,當考生備考時已經完成OG但沒有達到需要做難題的分數時,備考重點應仍放在OG上。


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